Too many EIAs are failing to stop environmental calamaties. Here’s what we need to do.
Barbora Adamková študuje environmentálne štúdiá na Masarykovej univerzite v Brne a bola medzi zadržanými aktivistami Greenpeace po proteste proti ťažbe uhlia v Novákoch.
Maroš Sloboda už 10 rokov vyrába zdarma okuliare pre ľudí bez domova. Musíme ho nútiť, aby o sebe rozprával verejne, popularita mu trošku prekáža. No jeho príbeh je naozaj inšpirujúci.
– biznis funguje, sukromnici funguju, ale nie vsetci
– telefonne linky boli lacnejsie ako v okolitych statoch, aj volania do zahranicia, aj mobilne
– sukromnici poskytuju vodu, aj tam kde ju neposkytoval stat
– letenky su lacnejsie ako niektore europske
– sudy ohladom komercie boli nahradene 'radou starejsich', ktora je zadarmo a relativne rychla
– gramotnost a navsteva skol klesla z 90% na 18% (skoly su platene)
– elektrina bola iba v mestach, kde bola firma ktora to produkovala, niekde mali aj poulicne osvetlenie
– pokrytie internetom alebo mobilmi bolo ovela nizsie ako v okolitych krajinach
– telekomy spolu nekomunikuju, a tak susedovi ktory je v inej sieti (4 siete) volas za medzinarodne ceny
– starostlivost o zivotne prostredie je zla
– nedostatok standardnych veci – restauracie, lieky
– trhovnici maju nutnost platit si dan
– Piloti lietadiel: "Competition and demand push quality down, however, as customers consistently demonstrate a preference for low prices at the expense of safety."
– cena vody sa pri suchach zvysuje
international partners only if they have a registered offshore office (usually in Dubai). Airline carriers
maintain the runways and self-handle, which wastes resources and lowers service quality. The lack of
adequate commercial /lending legislation stunts firm growth. Finally, weak quality standards are
responsible for a four-fold reduction of livestock exports, the main foreign exchange source. <b>Health and
education for the socially weak, cannot be profitably provided by the private sector and are therefore not
available in the absence of state involvement.</b>
strana 6 – skolstvo:
17% by private individuals (Box 4). Local authorities manage the remaining schools.17 Government-run
primary schools are insufficient in number and understaffed. They were characterized in interviews as
“lower in quality than their private alternative”. Private donations, from diaspora or domestic and foreign
religious organizations, as well as community donations of premises, are frequent financing methods for
educational institutions. Fees paid by parents is an alternative source of funding.
strana 6 – zdravie:
Private clinics, diagnostic facilities, and pharmacies function in most major cities and towns, and are
relatively affordable, but of debatable quality. Basic equipment is available to the physicians; however,
more intricate tasks require flying the patient to a neighboring country. Doctors are available even in
remote villages. The lack of doctor and nurse certification is detrimental to the quality of health care in the
country. Reputation effects are not sufficient to supplant medical diplomas, given the unobservable
character of the quality of care. As the Somalis say: “The patients who survived with praise the doctor, and
those who died will say nothing”. On the other hand, government-run hospitals are insufficient in number,
understaffed and reportedly of lower quality than their private alternative. State-employed physicians as a
rule maintain a private practice as well. Drug quality standards are vital, as medication is sold outside of
pharmacies, in stalls on the street; and products are frequently sold past their expiration dates.
Health, education, and safety nets for the very poor cannot profitably be provided by the private sector,
leaving a clear mandate for government presence in these sectors. The existing gap in state provision of
those services is not being filled. The role of a safety net has been played by private remittances from the
diaspora, alms, religious organizations, loans from the extended family or clan. For example, vulnerable
groups traditionally do not pay for water: upon request, they are allocated a modest quantity for free from
private catchments by the owners
strana 9 – zakon, sudy
The legal system as far as commercial matters are concerned is either fully dysfunctional or riddled by
delays and corruption. The lack of commercial laws or their application (contracts, company laws, lending,
foreign investment laws, etc) greatly limits the growth of the private sector. For example, there is no
concept of limited liability. Book-keeping and accounting procedures are rarely used, even by large
enterprises. Partnerships tend to be short-lived as a result of unresolved disputes. On the other hand the
individual or family businesses have a high rate of insolvency, due to lack of risk-sharing. Even when laws
exist, they are not enforced or publicized.
warlords and clan leaders rose to take power away from the court, which
was now openly competing with the authorities for state functions.
strana 11 – Conclusion
The vibrant Somalia business community has successfully developed new markets from the ruins of civil
war, in the context of a severely limited government presence and regulation. In addition to the provision of
basic goods and services, the private sector has offered essential infrastructure, and health and education
services, whose coverage in some cases extents beyond peak levels achieved under the pre-1991 regime
characterized by active government presence.
In spite of such accomplishments, the private sector has not delivered the optimal market outcomes
achievable, and there is a role for some regulation. On the other hand, heavy state involvement carries the
risk of corruption, weak property rights, and state capture. This study identifies the strengths and limitations
of both state involvement and private solutions, on the case of major Somali industries. We delineate the
areas where targeted, well-enforced regulation is appropriate, as well as instances where a private solution is
The optimal level and complexity of the regulatory burden on business depends crucially on the level of
development of the country. In poor countries the state should focus its scarce resources on the provision of
a modicum of services, e.g. property rights, rule of law, standardization and quality provisions. Profitable
projects should not be operated by the government in poor countries, even in traditionally government
dominated sectors such as infrastructure, health, and education. Rules and laws should be simple and
transparent, to ease enforcement, and should focus on preventing significant problems, as opposed to finetuning minor business faults and market inefficiencies.
A som zvedavy, ako by krajina s an-cap (anarcho-kapitalizmom) vyriesila velke problemy typu lesne poziare, epidemie osypok, alebo nakazliva choroba medzi zvieratami ktora vyzaduje karantenu (a ci by to vobec zistila vcas), ktore riesi centralizovany system.
Vyšetrovateľka, ktorá vypočúvala jeho sestru, pri zmienke o sexuálnom útoku povedala, že zrejme aj tak nič necítila, keď je od pása nadol ochrnutá.
Darujte netradičný darčekový certifikát od Človeka v ohrození. Urobíte radosť sebe aj svojim blízkym a zároveň pomôžete ľuďom, ktorí potrebujú našu pomoc.